We were just in Amsterdam to present our research on uses of NFC for physical access control. The two main industries we focused on were transit and hotel systems. Ever since Intrepidus got us Nexus S phones with NFC early last year, we’ve been looking for real world uses of NFC on our trips. We discovered the flaw with the SF Muni Ultralight cards last year on a trip there and followed up with informing them of the issue in December. At the time, we had to take the cards home and use an NFC reader connected to a laptop to do testing. Since then, things have changed; the Android API supports reading from and writing to most Mifare NFC cards, Ultralights included.
Some of the coverage of this has confused all NFC transit systems with those using the Mifare Ultralight cards incorrectly. In our presentation, we listed several cities that we know have NFC transit systems as an example of how widespread the technology is becoming. We listed two cities using Mifare Ultralight cards incorrectly that we have 1) tested and 2) contacted with remediation details.
For those of you that missed the video, we have it posted here: https://vimeo.com/49664045
This was a NJ Path 10 trip Ultralight card in the video. When we tap the card to the phone, our application reads all the data in pages 4 to 15 from the card and stores the data to the phone (we also store the card’s UID which we’ll write about more next week on hotel card issues). We then tap the card between two turn styles (which is why the count jumps by two). Once the 10 trips on card have been used up, touching it back to the phone causes the application to write the data back to the card. And with that, the card looks to be back in its original state when it was purchased with 10 rides remaining.
While these Ultralight cards don’t have access control features which are found in more expensive NFC cards, they do support a feature called a “One Way Counter” (which was named One Time Programmable or “OTP” in previous documents). These bits are in page 3 of the card’s data and once a bit is turned on, it can never be turned back off. This way, a card could be limited to being used only a limited number of times. These bits are left unchanged by the two transit systems we looked at which used Ultralight cards.
We know a number of cities are looking to roll out contactless technology and hope we can bring light to this issue so that it is implemented correctly in the future. One of the items we also raised in our talk is that full card emulation on smartphones is likely to happen soon. When this does, it could cause a number of NFC based access control systems to be re-evaluated.
If you think your system might be vulnerable to this issue, we have put an Android application in the Play store which will read and compare the one way counter (“OTP”) on Ultralight cards. Note, the standard cards that you might get from transit systems typically are not Ultralights. Ultralights are typically only used for “disposable” or “limited use” type tickets.
We have been reading lots of insightful comments on the articles we’ve seen. Please feel free to post questions or comments here and we will do our best to answer them (and no, we’re not planning to release the full UltraReset application). Last but not least, we would like to thank dragos and crew for having us at another one of the SecWest events — it’s always a great to catch up with folks in the industry and hear talks in the single track format. Thanks!
~Corey and Max
Both comments and trackbacks are currently closed.